© Mara Mills
is a Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow in the History and Sociology of Science Department at the University of Pennsylvania. She holds a Master`s degree in Biology and a Ph.D. in History of Science from Harvard University. She is currently researching the speech and hearing studies conducted by telephone engineers in the frst half of the twentieth century and their signifcance to the history of information theory and cybernetics. She has a particular interest in the role played by deafness and deaf people at American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), especially in the development of the audiometer, the vocoder, and more.